cooling tower calculations - cooling water treatment,coc = conductivity in cooling water / conductivity in makeup water. coc = make up water quantity / blowdown water quantity. the last formula gives you more accurate coc if you have flow measurement facility available for makeup & blowdown water in the cooling tower..cooling_tower_calculator << united labs, inc.,enter the average load on the tower over the days in which it is in operation. enter the load as a decimal. for example 50% = 0.5; enter the current delta t across tower; enter the current cycles of concentration; enter the days of operation per year; enter the cost of water and sewer charges per thousand gallons..
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the blowdown rate is normally measured in gallons pen minute (m3/hr). system blowdown (bd) rate can be calculated from the following expression: bd= e x( cr −1) where: bd = blowdown rate, gpm (m3/hr) e = tower evaporation rate, gpm (m3/hr) cr = concentration ratio or cycles
makeup water. = evaporation loss + drift loss + blowdown. = 153.00 + 36.00 + 51.00 us gpm. = 240.00 us gpm. english metric. result. evaporation. rate of evaporation is approximately 1% of the circulation flow for each 10 °f (5.56 °c) of rise between the outlet and inlet across the tower.
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recall again, cooling tower makeup water = evaporation loss + drift loss + blowdown. let’s calculate each component. evaporation loss = 0.00085 x 10 000 x (100-85) = 127.5 gpm; drift loss = 0.02% x 10 000 = 2 gpm; blowdown = [127.5 – (5-1) x 2]/(5-1) = 29.87 gpm; cooling tower makeup water = 127.5 + 2 +29.87 = 159.37 gpm; reference:
the thermal capability of a cooling tower used for air condition- ing is often expressed in nominal cooling tower tons. a nominal cooling tower ton is defined as cooling 3 gpm of water from 95°f to 85°f at a 78°f entering air wet-bulb temperature. at these condi- tions, the cooling tower rejects 15,000 btuih per nominal cooling tower ton.
here are the governing relationships for the makeup flow rate, the evaporation and windage losses, the draw-off rate, and the concentration cycles in an evaporative cooling tower system: in the customary usa units: m = make-up water in gal/min. c = circulating water in gal/min. d
the cooling tower water. this constant build up of contaminants requires blowdown to help manage water quality. blowdown means a portion of the water in the open loop of the cooling tower is drained from the system and replaced with fresh make-up water. the primary purpose of blowdown
tower chiller windage the mass balance around a cooling tower as makeup illustrated in the figure to the right is: process leak makeup = evaporation + blowdown + process leaks + windage + drift process leaks, windage, and drift are really just forms of uncontrolled blowdown.
cooling tower efficiency = (hot water temperature – coldwater temperature) x 100/ (hot water temperature – wet bulb temperature) or simply. cooling tower efficiency = range/ (range + approach) x 100. in summer the ambient air wet-bulb temperature raises when compared to winter thus limiting the cooling tower efficiency.
the ph of saturation of tricalcium phosphate can be estimated from the following equation. phs = [11.755 – log (cah) – log (o-po 4) – 2log (t)] 0.65. actual cooling water ph’s above the ph of saturation for tricalcium phosphate will cause phosphate precipitation in
seawater cooling tower is approximately 1.5.4 therefore, the blowdown rate for a seawater cooling tower would be: wblowdown = [1/(n – 1)] × wevaporation = [1/(1.5 – 1)] × (12 gpm/mwe) = 24 gpm/mwe 3. seawater cooling tower drift rate the drift rate for a new cooling tower equipped with best available drift eliminators would be 0.0005%.
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water usage calculator. the calculator is based on 50% relative humidity (for ambient conditions.) please consult the factory if you need more detailed information. operating conditions. tower water flow. gpm. m 3 /h. hot water temperature. °f.
a typical cooling tower (500 ton, running 24 hrs day. 365 days per year) will flush over 3.9 million gallons of water down the drain each year. this breaks down to approximately 10,800 gallons of waste per day, 450 gallons per hour, or 7.5 gallons per minute being flushed down the drain from the cooling tower system 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
this report is available at no cost from the national renewable energy laboratory (nrel) at www.nrel.gov/publications. contract no. de-ac36-08go28308 national renewable energy laboratory 15013 denver west parkway golden, co 80401 303-275-3000 • www.nrel.gov. cooling tower (evaporative cooling system) measurement and verification protocol
example 11-7 -- cooling tower calculations on concentration and blowdown rate calculate the concentrations and blowdown rate for the following cooling tower: circulation rate = 10000 gpm water temperature drop through tower = 20 °f type of tower = mechanical-draft towers blowdown rate = 20 gpm or 0.2% of circulation rate therefore: evaporation loss = 2% (1% for each 10° temperature drop) windage loss = 0.3% (maximum for mechanical draft tower…
111. sample calculation figures..... references 1 ... i page ii ii i 1 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 8 10 11 16 19 24 abstract a survey of wet cooling tower l i t e r a t u r e was performed t o develop a simplified method of cooling tower design and simulation f o r use i n power p l a n t cycle o p t i m i z a t i o n .
cooling tower makeup water flow rate calculation. blowdown 1275 5-1 x 25-1 2987 gpm. evaporation rate gpm water flow rate gpm x range f x 0001. if the blowdown rate of the cooling tower is 1 of the circulation rate calculate the evaporation loss and coc. theoretically the evaporation quantity of water is 18 m 3 for every 1000000 kcal heat rejected.
determine the temperature difference between the water entering the cooling tower and the water exiting the cooling tower. d = drift loss in m 3 /hr have you learned about cooling tower calculations? please update the following information as it applies to your tower needs: gallons per minute. of time at which the rate of an analyte in the cooling 2.3 hours. they are common in industries such
calculation 6.1 winter season cooling tower range = hot water temperature – cold water temperature = 40.05˚c - 29.75˚c = 10.3˚c performance analysis of the natural draft cooling tower in different seasons
cooling tower makeup returned condensate # blow down present number water treatment wastewaters boiler makeup cooling tower makeup + boiler makeup utilities 1200 people time 25 gallons/person/shift count number of heads per zone multiply by rated capacity multiply by sprinkling time. return doc
makeup rate evaporation + blowdown 480 gpm + ( evap rate/ (coc -1) ) 480 gpm + 160 gpm = 640 gpm makeup water alkalinity 200 ppm 200 ppm desired recirculating water ph optimal ph determination (2) 7.5 estimated cooling water alkalinity for
sample calculation. let’s suppose we have a system where the tower that is 24 ft long, 12 ft wide, and has 18 inches water in the sump. 1. 12’ x 24’ x 1.5’ x 7.5 gal/cu.ft. = 3240 gallons water in the sump. adding another 10-20% for water in the system, the estimated system volume is about 3800 gallons. 2.
a typical 500-ton cooling tower system located in the nor t h e a s t - e r n united states may be operated safely at a concentr a t i o n ratio of 6 - 8, or higher, with a triangular wave deposit control